Banning jallikattu – and new visions for animal welfare, part two

two bulls blue crossIMG_3740



To read part one first, click here.  



In his Decision, at the end, Justice Radhakrishnan directs


– that the five freedoms be considered to be part of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act and that they be safeguarded by the states.


– that no animal may be incited to fight against a human being or another animal.


– that the AWBI  (Animal Welfare Board of India) and Governments should undertake education related to humane treatment of animals.


– that it is expected that Parliament will elevate the rights of animals to constitutional ones, “as is done by many of the countries around the world.”


– that the Act that was passed by Tamil Nadu to allow jallikattu to continue is in opposition to the PCA Act, and is therefore null and void. This means that jallikattu and bullock cart races are definitively banned.


So ends the cruelty of jallikattu and bullock cart racing. Blue Cross of India has been opposing the inhumane “sport” of jallikattu for the past forty years.


The Supreme Court ruling lays out clearly the major points supporting the rights of animals: the five freedoms, the obligation of Indian citizens to treat animals with kindness, and importantly, that animals have their own innate nature, honor, and dignity – quite independent of any value they may have to humans.


This is a step far ahead of the perception of animals as property which still forms the foundation of animal law in a number of countries, including the U.S.


painting of Nandi IMG_7523


Positive changes stemming from this Supreme Court ruling


Justice Radhakrishnan has now retired, this being his last case. His career on the bench was marked by great fairness and significant decisions that re-affirmed the rights of all human beings, and also of animals.


The Supreme Court jallikattu ruling carries with it a ripple effect that has already begun to bring about changes to the standing of animals in the law. On August 8, 2014, AWBI met in Chennai and worked on fine-tuning the new Animal Welfare Bill to bring it into line with the Supreme Court ruling.


The Joint Secretary of the Ministry of Environment and Forests was present at the meeting. AWBI falls under the Ministry of Environment and Forests. This was the 41st general meeting, and all the members of the AWBI were there.


The new bill will mandate the setting up of a National Animal Welfare Authority which will take on the functions of the AWBI and will be accorded much more authority for enforcement. Enforcement has been a weak link in India’s animal protection system.


This new bill will have to be passed by both houses of parliament, and if it’s passed by only one, will have to go back to the first house again to be reconsidered. It’s a prolonged process.


One of the key measures in the new bill will be that animal law will extend not just to prevention of cruelty, but it will be spelled out that the five freedoms of the animal must be guaranteed.


The PCA Act of 1960


Animal laws in India are already among the most enlightened in the world. The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act was passed, in 1960, thanks largely to the work of Rukmini Devi Arundale, well known as a dancer and choreographer of Indian classical dance, as well as an animal advocate. The PCA Act set up the first Animal Welfare Board of India, and she became its first Chairperson.


The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) was set up at the request of the AWBI and has brought about reforms to ameliorate the situation of laboratory animals.


The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 banned hunting throughout India and gave protective status to all wildlife.


Chinny w Shyama IMG_1450


Dr. S. Chinny Krishna has served on the Animal Welfare Board of India for several terms, and has been the Board’s Vice-Chairman from 2000 to 2003 and again since 2010. Along with many others, like Parliamentarian Maneka Gandhi, who have resolutely pursued the cause of animal welfare in India for many decades, Dr. Krishna has played a central role in creating the framework of Indian Animal Protection Laws, which set an example for the world in terms of their far-reaching scope and their recognition that animals have rights and intrinsic value.


This system of laws reflects the most ancient traditions of India, such as the spiritual principle of “ahimsa” or “do no harm.”


To visit the Facebook page of the Animal Welfare Board of India, click here


Photos: Sharon St Joan

Top photo: Two bulls (not jallikattu bulls) rescued by Blue Cross of India

Second photo: A painting of Nandi, the vahana of Shiva, in south India.

Third photo: Dr. S. Chinny Krishna with Shyama


Banning jallikattu – and new visions for animal welfare, part one

rescued calf IMG_6333


The recent Supreme Court of India ruling banning the cruel “sports” of bull fighting (jallikattu) and bull racing is one of the most remarkable documents ever issued, by any country, in setting out a fundamental legal basis in support of animal welfare.


Here is a brief summary of the ruling, with some quotes from the court’s judgment:




“All living creatures have inherent dignity and a right to live peacefully and the right to protect their well-being…”


“Human life, we often say, is not like animal existence, a view having anthropocentric bias, forgetting the fact that animals have also got intrinsic worth and value.”


In its 103 page judgment, the Court considers both the arguments of the State of Tamil Nadu, presenting the case for continuing to hold jallikattu events – and also the case for banning jallikattu on the grounds of cruelty, brought by the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI).


Animals in Indian tradition


Justice K.S. Radhakrishnan who wrote the Supreme Court ruling countered Tamil Nadu’s assertion that jallikattu is a part of Tamil Nadu culture and tradition by referring to much older tradition, extant for thousands of years, “the well-being of the bull is Tamil culture and tradition, they do not approve of infliction of any pain or suffering on the bulls … Tamil tradition and culture are to worship the bull and the bull is always considered as the vehicle of Lord Shiva…Jallikattu or the bullock cart race, as practiced now, has never been the tradition or culture of Tamil Nadu.”


He goes on quote ancient sacred writings, in the Isha Upanishad, to illustrate the true tradition and culture of India, “As early as 1500-1600 BC in the Isha Upanishad, it is professed as follows: “The universe along with its creatures belongs to the land. No creature is superior to any other. Human beings should not be above nature. Let no one species encroach over the rights and privileges of other species.”


This is the view against speciesism that is subscribed to by most of today’s animal rights advocates, and it was written down in India over 3,500 years ago.


Animals in international law


There follows, in the court document, a discussion of international views of animals and animal law. Justice Radhakrisnan points out that , in general, the United Nations “has safeguarded the rights of human beings,” but not those of animals.


The World Charter for Nature, however, was passed by the UN General Assembly on October 28, 1982. It states, “that every form of life is unique, warranting respect regardless of its worth to man.”


Many countries guarantee extensive protection to animals:


“German Animal Welfare Law, especially Article 3, provides far-reaching protections to animals… Countries like Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia have enacted legislation to include animal welfare” in their national Constitutions, and the U.K and Austria protect animals in their animal welfare acts. India accords protection to animals in its Constitution. The Animal Welfare Act, 2010 (Norway) states “animals have an intrinsic value which is irrespective of the usable value they may have for man. Animals shall be treated well and be protected from the danger of unnecessary stress and strain.”


The World Health Organization has recognized the five freedoms of animals:

(i) freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition;

(ii) freedom from fear and distress;

(iii) freedom from physical and thermal discomfort;

(iv) freedom from pain, injury and disease; and

(v) freedom to express normal patterns of behavior.


Animals in the Indian Constitution


Justice Radhakrishnan explains that when Article 19 (1) (f) was deleted from the Indian Constitution, this meant that the right to property, while still recognized as a right, is no longer a fundamental right. Animals are universally recognized as property; however, this “is now only a legal right, not a fundamental right.” This distinction means that animals do have intrinsic rights, and human property rights do not take precedence over the fundamental rights of animals. This allows Parliament to pass animal protection laws.


Article 51A (g) of the Indian Constitution states that it is a fundamental duty of every citizen “to have compassion for living creatures,” which means having concern for their suffering, and extending sympathy and kindliness towards them. India’s was the first Constitution in the world to require of citizens that they be kind to animals.





Justice Radhakrishnan then states that jallikattu and bullock cart racing “inherently involve pain and suffering.” This is because it is not part of the nature of bulls to enjoy running. They are not like horses, and they do not run unless they are forced to try to flee by being mistreated. For them, running is a flight response.


There is presented in detail the cruel and inhumane treatment of the bulls, in numerous incidents that were witnessed and documented by PETA India and the AWBI, at jallikattu events.


The Supreme Court declares that the “right to dignity and fair treatment is, therefore, not confined to human beings alone, but to animals as well.”


To be continued in part two.  


To visit the Facebook page of the Animal Welfare Board of India, click here.  


Top photo: Sharon St Joan / A rescued calf at Blue Cross of India


Second photo: © Christian Bridgwater / / A sheep on a mountain.


Third photo: Sharon St Joan / Painting of Nandi, the vahana of Shiva, south India.